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Gaspar, D,Spanoudes, K,Holladay, C,Pandit, A,Zeugolis, D
Progress in cell-based therapies for tendon repair
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Tendon repair and regeneration Cell-based therapy Permanently differentiated cells Reprogrammed/engineered cells Stem cells In vitro microenvironment modulators Small/large animal predinical models Clinical trials MESENCHYMAL STEM-CELLS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA CYCLIC TENSILE STRAIN HEALING IN-VITRO GROWTH-FACTOR SUPPLEMENTATION DIGITAL FLEXOR TENDON UMBILICAL-CORD BLOOD MARROW STROMAL CELLS ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR PROMOTED OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATION
The last decade has seen significant developments in cell therapies, based on permanently differentiated, reprogrammed or engineered stem cells, for tendon injuries and degenerative conditions. In vitro studies assess the influence of biophysical, biochemical and biological signals on tenogenic phenotype maintenance and/or differentiation towards tenogenic lineage. However, the ideal culture environment has yet to be identified due to the lack of standardised experimental setup and readout system. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and tenocytes/dermal fibroblasts appear to be the cell populations of choice for clinical translation in equine and human patients respectively based on circumstantial, rather than on hard evidence. Collaborative, inter- and multi-disciplinary efforts are expected to provide clinically relevant and commercially viable cell-based therapies for tendon repair and regeneration in the years to come. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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