This paper reports the pattern of production and secretion of a secretory phase epitope in the endometrium of 44 normal fertile women. Peroxidase immunochemistry was used to detect the monoclonal antibody D9B1, which binds to a peptide-associated sialylated oligosaccharide, in endometrial biopsies all chronologically dated from the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak. During the proliferative phase, the epitope was shown to be absent from tissue sections. It first made its appearance within gland cells 2 days after the LH peak. By LH+3 a rapid accumulation of the D9B1 epitope was noted in the base of the cell, below the nucleus. On subsequent days, increasing amounts of the antigen were detected in the apical cytoplasm, apparently in a more concentrated form than in the basal cell zone. On day LH+6, around the time of implantation, secretory vesicles in the cell apex were discharged into the gland lumen where the glycoconjugate finally accumulated. This immunohistochemical approach introduces a new parameter for evaluation of endometrial function and could be used to improve the accuracy of histological assessment of the endometrial cycle.