Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Wallace, TA,Downey, RF,Seufert, CJ,Schetter, A,Dorsey, TH,Johnson, CA,Goldman, R,Loffredo, CA,Yan, PS,Sullivan, FJ,Giles, FJ,Wang-Johanning, F,Ambs, S,Glynn, SA
2014
September
Carcinogenesis
Elevated HERV-K mRNA expression in PBMC is associated with a prostate cancer diagnosis particularly in older men and smokers
Published
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Optional Fields
HUMAN-ENDOGENOUS-RETROVIRUS PERIPHERAL-BLOOD TRANSCRIPTOME CIRCULATING TUMOR-CELLS BREAST-CANCER IMMUNE-RESPONSE SMOKING ELEMENTS DISEASE HEALTH RISK
35
2074
2083
Aberrant expression of subgroup k human endogenous retroviruses (HERV-K) has been observed in prostate cancer. This subgroup is unique because it encodes sequences in the human genome containing open reading frames for near intact retroviruses. We hypothesized that HERV-K reactivation could serve as a non-invasive early disease detection marker for prostate cancer. We evaluated HERV-K gag messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in blood samples of African-American and European-American men using a case-control design via quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, we examined HERV-K envelope protein expression in prostate tumors by immunohistochemistry. HERV-K envelope protein was commonly upregulated in prostate tumors, but more so in tumors of African-American than European-American patients (61% versus 40%, P 12-fold increased odds {odds ratio = 12.87 [95% confidence interval 6.3-26.25]} of being diagnosed with prostate cancer than those in the lowest quartile. Moreover, our results showed that HERV-K expression may perform better as a disease biomarker in older than younger men (whereas the sensitivity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing decreases with age) and in men with a smoking history compared with never smokers. Combining non-invasive HERV-K testing with PSA testing may improve the efficacy of prostate cancer detection specifically among older men and smokers who tend to develop a more aggressive disease.
10.1093/carcin/bgu114
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