Indoor environment, Natural ventilation, Methodology,Calibration
Well planned natural ventilation strategies and systems in the built environments may provide healthyand comfortable indoor conditions, while contributing to a significant reduction in the energy consumedby buildings. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is particularly suited for modelling indoor conditionsin naturally ventilated spaces, which are difficult to predict using other types of building simulation tools.Hence, accurate and reliable CFD models of naturally ventilated indoor spaces are necessary to supportthe effective design and operation of indoor environments in buildings.This paper presents a formal calibration methodology for the development of CFD models of naturallyventilated indoor environments. The methodology explains how to qualitatively and quantitatively verifyand validate CFD models, including parametric analysis utilising the response surface technique tosupport a robust calibration process. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a naturally ventilatedstudy zone in the library building at the National University of Ireland in Galway. The calibrationprocess is supported by the on-site measurements performed in a normally operating building. Themeasurement of outdoor weather data provided boundary conditions for the CFD model, whilea network of wireless sensors supplied air speeds and air temperatures inside the room for the modelcalibration.The concepts and techniques developed here will enhance the process of achieving reliable CFDmodels that represent indoor spaces and provide new and valuable information for estimating the effectof the boundary conditions on the CFD model results in indoor environments.