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Shen, S. and Kruyt, F.A. and den Hertog, J. and van der Saag, P.T. and Kruijer, W.
Mouse and human retinoic acid receptor beta 2 promoters: sequence comparison and localization of retinoic acid responsiveness.
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The retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) gene is a member of the family of retinoic acid/thyroid hormone receptor genes, encoding retinoic acid-inducible transcription factors. To study regulation of the RAR beta gene, genomic clones containing the mouse and human retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR beta 2) promoters were isolated and approximately 1.5 kb of upstream and downstream sequences relative to the transcriptional start site were completely sequenced. Both the mouse and human RAR beta 2 promoters are highly homologous around the transcription initiation site, with perfect conservation of the TATA box and retinoic acid responsive element (RARE). Promoter activation studies in P19 EC cells show, that the RARE in both the human and mouse promoters confers RA-responsiveness to the RAR beta 2 promoter. However, sequences located immediately upstream of the RARE also confer RA-inducibility to both the mouse and human RAR beta 2 gene promoters. This region contains conserved consensus sequences for a TPA-responsive element (TRE) and cAMP-responsive element (CRE), suggesting that in addition to regulation by RA receptors other transcription factors regulate RAR beta 2 expression in EC cells. Furthermore, the availability of the mouse RAR beta 2 promoter should facilitate studies for transgene expression and gene targeting experiments in embryonic stem cells.
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