Conference Publication Details
Mandatory Fields
Khoo, S., Torres, A.
Conference on Internationalisation: Myths, Realities, Challenges & Opportunities
From Transactional to Transformative Internationalisation of Higher Education: progressing from exposure to learning
Optional Fields
DIT, Dublin
Internationalisation involves many choices (Altbach and Knight 2007). The importing/exporting activities of internationalisation embody diverse principles, intents, behaviours, persons, processes and products (Hawawini 2011), propelled by diverse driving forces, such as Europeanisation (Teichler 2009), student demand for intercultural learning (Nørgaard 2014), or geopolitical and cultural expansionism (O’Mara 2012). This paper presents a schema of five distinct, overlapping strands of ideas and practices to examine internationalisation (Khoo 2011).Also presented is an internationalisation continuum (Clifford and Joseph, 2005) from economic, which encourages commoditised mass education programmes (Schapper and Mayson, 2004); to integrative, which assimilates cultural understandings across curriculum design (Gelade, 2003); totransformational, wherethere are paradigm shifts by viewing the curriculum from different racial, cultural and gender perspectives (Banks, 1999). Section 2 outlines a, mixed-methods comparative study of global ethics and internationalisation policies in higher education, involving 28 project partners in 9 countries. The study combines several data sources, including policy analysis, student surveys, faculty surveys and qualitative interviews with office-holders tasked with internationalisation (Pashby, Nicolson and Andreotti, in progress). Section 3 focuses on branding’s role and considers, its progression froman externally driven and revenue-focused internationalisation perspective(DES 2010) to embedded strategic visions of internationalisation, seeking to confer not only ‘market’ distinctiveness, but also to transform a university’sorientations and strategically reshape perceptions about its mission and activities. The discussion considers the attraction of ‘ethical branding’ and whether ‘responsible internationalisation’may influence organisational learning and transformation. Returning to theorise internationalisation, the discussion examines transactional versus transformational perspectives and aligns them to educational theories of transformational learning. In conclusion, the paper considers how a transformational approach to internationalisation may influence student experiences and learning beyond a transactional approach, while also appealing to institution-wide research orientations, as well as the search for reputational positioning in a globalised field of higher education. 
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