Children presenting to hospital frequently encounter medical procedures that are painful, unexpected and frightening, which are worsened by stress and anxiety of unfamiliar surroundings leading to poor experiences of health care settings. The principles of pain management apply to all; however, infants and children pose unique challenges to nurses that require consideration of the child’s age, developmental level, communication skills, cognition, previous experience of pain and associated beliefs. Perception of pain in children is complex and involves physiological, psychological, behavioral, and developmental factors¹. However, despite this pain in infants and children is frequently underestimated and under-treated. It has been found that infants and children who experience pain in early years, show long-term changes in terms of pain perception and related behaviours². In 2007, 144,703 children aged 0-17 years were discharged from hospital in Ireland³. Common procedures which children undergo while hospitalized include venepunctures, wound dressings, lumbar punctures and urinary catheterization. Many pain assessment tools and child-friendly aids are available to nurses to assess and ease children’s experiences of what is frequently frightening and foreign in a child’s life. These will now be discussed in relation to neonates, infants, and school aged children.