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Aliu, E,Archambault, S,Arlen, T,Aune, T,Beilicke, M,Benbow, W,Bird, R,Bouvier, A,Bradbury, SM,Buckley, JH,Bugaev, V,Byrum, K,Cannon, A,Cesarini, A,Ciupik, L,Collins-Hughes, E,Connolly, MP,Cui, W,Dickherber, R,Duke, C,Dumm, J,Dwarkadas, VV,Errando, M,Falcone, A,Federici, S,Feng, Q,Finley, JP,Finnegan, G,Fortson, L,Furniss, A,Galante, N,Gall, D,Gillanders, GH,Godambe, S,Gotthelf, EV,Griffin, S,Grube, J,Gyuk, G,Hanna, D,Holder, J,Huan, H,Hughes, G,Humensky, TB,Kaaret, P,Karlsson, N,Kertzman, M,Khassen, Y,Kieda, D,Krawczynski, H,Krennrich, F,Lang, MJ,Lee, K,Madhavan, AS,Maier, G,Majumdar, P,McArthur, S,McCann, A,Millis, J,Moriarty, P,Mukherjee, R,Nelson, T,de Bhroithe, AO,Ong, RA,Orr, M,Otte, AN,Pandel, D,Park, N,Perkins, JS,Pohl, M,Popkow, A,Prokoph, H,Quinn, J,Ragan, K,Reyes, LC,Reynolds, P
Astrophysical Journal
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acceleration of particles cosmic rays gamma rays: general ISM: supernova remnants PARTICLE-ACCELERATION FERMI HESS SEARCH COUNTERPART 2CG078+2 CATALOG ORIGIN
We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0 degrees.23 +/- 0 degrees.03(stat-0 degrees.02sys)(+0 degrees.04) and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N-0 x (E/TeV)-Gamma) with a photon index of Gamma = 2.37 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and a flux normalization of N-0 = 1.5 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 0.4(sys) x 10(-12) photon TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1). This yields an integral flux of 5.2 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 1.4(sys) x 10(-12) photon cm(-2) s(-1) above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.
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