Glucose oxidising enzyme electrodes have long been studied for their application to biosensors and, more recently, anodes in biofuel cells. At a fundamental level, insight into enzyme electron transfer and oxidation current generation at enzyme electrodes can be gained by systematic studies on integration of surfaces, biocatalysts, and artificial substrates (mediators). In this perspective, we present an overview of methods to aid the development of glucose oxidising enzyme electrodes based on mediated electron transfer for application to continuous-use anodes in a biofuel cell. Focus is placed on the rational design of mediators, based on osmium redox complexes, and screening of the activity of such complexes as mediators for glucose oxidising enzymes. An overview of the performance of enzyme electrodes, focused predominantly on crosslinked films of redox polymers and glucose oxidase, for glucose oxidation, is presented and approaches to improve both current output and stability of such enzyme electrodes are discussed.