Roughan Hill: A Study of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Society in Western Ireland The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age were eras of significant social change across western Europe. New technologies, ritual practices, and forms of social organization all appeared at this time. Studies of this period have tended to focus on artefacts, technology, burials, ritual monuments, and more recently stable isotope analyses of human remains. At Roughan Hill in western Ireland, six seasons of fieldwork have added a new dimension to the study of this dynamic period – an extensive landscape where contemporary habitation sites, field divisions, and ritual monuments are all present. The Roughan Hill evidence, when analyzed in conjunction with more traditional lines of inquiry, allows an investigation of prehistoric social organization that starts at the scale of a residential group and then expands geographically and chronologically. This study attempts to explain the particularities of Roughan Hill and the surrounding region within an interpretive framework of social organization rooted in anthropology, while at the same time emphasizing the role of specific historical trajectories in the Burren and River Fergus regions of western Ireland between c. 2500 – 1600 BC.