Significance: The kidney helps to maintain low blood pressure in the human body, and impaired kidney function is a common attribute of aging that is often associated with high blood pressure (hypertension). Kidney-related pathologies are important contributors (either directly or indirectly) to overall human mortality. In comparison with other organs, kidney has an unusually wide range of oxidative status, ranging from the well-perfused cortex to near-anoxic medulla. Recent Advances: Oxidative stress has been implicated in many kidney pathologies, especially chronic kidney disease, and there is considerable research interest in oxidative stress biomarkers for earlier prediction of disease onset. Proteomics approaches have been taken to study of human kidney tissue, serum/plasma, urine, and animal models of hypertension. Critical Issues: Redox proteomics, in which oxidative post-translational modifications can be identified in protein targets of oxidative or nitrosative stress, has not been very extensively pursued in this set of pathologies. Future Directions: Proteomics studies of kidney and related tissues have relevance to chronic kidney disease, and redox proteomics, in particular, represents an under-exploited toolkit for identification of novel biomarkers in this commonly occurring pathology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1560-1570.