For much of the twentieth century, Ireland on screen was defined to an overwhelming extent by foreign directors and perspectives. Within the oppressive context of early twentieth Ireland, film was viewed with suspicion by the establishment, evident in the restrictive Censorship of Films Act enacted in 1923 under the auspices of the Ministry of Home Affairs (a precursor to the Department of Justice), and one of the first pieces of legislation passed by the newly independent Dáil Éireann (parliament) of the Irish Free State. As a result, the employment of film as a critical tool to examine Irish society and identify injustice was slow to develop. Rather, film was an important part of the popular cultural context that sustained prevailing conceptions of Irishness and the position of moral authorities (above all the Catholic Church) within Irish society, evident in particular in the sympathetic portrayals found repeatedly of the Irish priest, one of the most recognisable Irish stereotypes in the cinema. This paper examines Irish cinema in the first half of the twentieth century in light of the existence of Irelands architecture of containment (Smith 2001) that contributed to ongoing injustices highlighted in Peter Lennons ground-breaking 1968 documentary Rocky Road to Dublin, a key text in identifying the society of blatant inequalities" that prevailed in Ireland.