Despite the sustained high prevalence of smoking among Indonesian adult men, little is known about possible protective factors in this group. This study examined the relationship between key characteristics of masculinity (e.g., fatherhood status, being the main breadwinner or sole provider for the family) and current smoking behaviours (smoking status and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD)) among Indonesian men aged 18-49 years.
In total, 2540 Indonesian men aged 18-49 participated in the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence, 2012. Fatherhood status was categorised into three groups: nonfathers, new fathers and more experienced fathers. The association between fatherhood status and current smoking, as well as fatherhood status and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), was estimated by employing logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions, respectively.
Socioeconomic factors were associated with smoking behaviour among Indonesian adult men. The odds of smoking among new fathers and more experienced fathers were 2.3 (95% CI: 1.09-4.79) and 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.08-2.17) higher compared with nonfathers, respectively. Men who had a shared income with their partner or received income from their parents smoked 13% (95% CI 0.79-0.95) and 11% fewer CPD (95% CI 0.79-0.99) compared with men who were the main breadwinner, respectively.
In this study, fatherhood represents an aspect of traditionally masculine roles, offering a new perspective for looking at smoking problems in Indonesia. Other key aspects of traditional masculinity characteristics, the breadwinner role, occupation and sources of family income had significant associations with smoking status and CPD. Men smoked fewer CPD as fathers and when sharing the financial responsibility for their family equally with their spouse.