IMPORTANCE Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) is a surgical adjunct that has been increasingly used during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP). Despite its growing popularity, to our knowledge a meta-analysis comparing MIP with ioPTH vs MIP without ioPTH has not yet been conducted.OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of MIP with ioPTH for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.DATA SOURCES A systematic search of the databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Collaboration was performed to identify studies that compared MIP with and without ioPTH. Data were analyzed between August and September 2019.STUDY SELECTION Inclusion criteria consisted of randomized clinical trials and observational studies with a retrospective/prospective design, comparing MIP using ioPTH vs MIP not using ioPTH for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. Eligible studies had to present odds ratio (OR), risk ratio, or hazard ratio estimates (with 95% CI), standard errors, or number of events necessary to calculate these for the outcome of interest rate. Studies involving patients with secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism or those with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses () reporting guidelines. Dichotomous variables were pooled as ORs while continuous variables were compared using weighted mean differences. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was rate of cure. Secondary outcomes included need for reoperation, need for bilateral neck exploration, morbidity, and length of surgery.RESULTS A total of 12 studies, involving 2290 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, were eligible for inclusion. The median (SD) age of participants was 60.1 (11.8) years and 77.3% of participants were women. The median Newcastle-Ottawa score was 7. Patients who underwent MIP with ioPTH had higher cure rates (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 2.12-7.10; P < .001). There was a greater need for reoperation in the group of patients who had surgery without ioPTH (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.86; P = .02). There was a trend toward longer operating times/increased duration of surgery in the ioPTH group; however, this did not reach statistical significance (weighted mean difference, 21.62 minutes; 95% CI, -0.93 to 44.17 minutes; P = .06). The use of ioPTH was associated with higher rates of bilateral neck exploration (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.27-9.92; P = .02).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Use of ioPTH is associated with higher cure rates for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing MIP. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy performed without ioPTH is associated with less conversion to bilateral neck exploration at initial surgery but with lower cure rates and an increased risk for reoperation.