Metal(loid) contamination caused by industrial activities in agricultural soils has become a universal environmental and food safety concern. This study revealed the contamination, pathway, and source contribution of metal(loid)s such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in maize and soils in different residential areas impacted by long-term historical artisanal zinc smelling activities from Southwest China. Results revealed that the soils were contaminated heavily by metals like Pb, Zn and Cd, with contents of 40-14,280, 150-47,020 and 128-61.7 mg/kg, respectively. Hazard quotients of food uptake for Pb, Cd and Cr in maize grains were extremely high for residents, in particular for the children. To trace the sources of metal health risk, lead isotope fingerprinting and binary mixing modeling were applied. It indicated that the anthropogenic activities contributed over 80% to the Pb contamination in maize grains. The findings highlighted warning levels of health risks to the residents in consuming maize grains in the historical artisanal Pb-Zn smelting area. Therefore, an effective strategy including pollution source control and remediation measures must be taken to improve the soil quality and guarantee food safety around the historical smelting areas likewise. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.