In addition to the traditional drivers of cost and timely programme delivery, embodied energy (EE) and embodied carbon (EC) have emerged as major considerations in all aspects (including geotechnical) of large construction projects. Foundation engineers are beginning to undertake comparisons of the EE/EC associated with various piling and ground improvement options as part of an overall appraisal of scheme feasibility. Where construction involves the modification or removal of peat, these calculations become more challenging as allowances should be made for the impact on the carbon stored within the peat and the gases potentially released from peat. Using a calculator developed at NUI Galway, research is underway to consider the EE/EC associated with piling, soil-mixing and excavate-and-replace—options that can facilitate road/motorway construction on peat. Several high-profile motorway projects in Ireland will provide data for the analysis. Also, with the help of scientists presently measuring Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from peat, the research will investigate GHG emissions from peat under various management practices, restoration techniques, and mitigation against drainage methods, assessing their strength in terms of hydrology and carbon storage potential. This paper summarises a literature review carried out to identify specifically the ‘peat-related’ factors that will impact upon EE/EC calculations on construction of a road/motorway on peat.