NOS gene therapy has been the focus of extensive research as dysfunction of this enzyme has been implicated in several cardiovascular diseases. Research has concentrated on comparing the effect of gene delivery of NOS isoforms (eNOS, NOS and nNOS) in healthy and diseased animal models on intimal hyperplasia, restenosis, vascular tone and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Most results demonstrate therapeutic benefits following vascular gene delivery of all NOS in pre-clinical models of cardiovascular disease. eNOS has been shown to have particular promise as it promotes re-endothelialisation and inhibits intimal hyperplasia in injured blood vessels. The ultimate goal is to translate the benefit of NOS gene therapy in animal models into clinical practise. To develop NOS gene therapy for clinical use further work needs to be undertaken to improve delivery systems and vectors to minimise detrimental side-effects and enhance positive treatment outcomes. This review focuses on current research on NOS gene therapy in cardiovascular disease and identifies the next steps that would be necessary to lead to clinical trials.