In the interaction between vehicles, pavements and bridges, it is essential to aim towards a reduction of vehicle axle forces to promote longer pavement life spans and to prevent bridges loads becoming too high. Moreover, as the road surface roughness affects the vehicle dynamic forces, an efficient monitoring of pavement condition is also necessary to achieve this aim. This paper uses a novel algorithm to identify the dynamic interaction forces and pavement roughness from vehicle accelerations in both theoretical simulations and a laboratory experiment; moving force identification theory is applied to a vehicle model for this purpose. Theoretical simulations are employed to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to predict forces over a range of bridge spans and to evaluate the influence of road roughness level on the accuracy of the results. Finally, in addressing the challenge for the real-world problem, the effects of vehicle configuration and speed on the predicted road roughness are also investigated in a laboratory experiment.