An experimental investigation is carried out to verify the feasibility of using an instrumented vehicle to detect and monitor bridge dynamic parameters. The low-cost method consists of the use of a moving vehicle fitted with accelerometers on its axles. In the laboratory experiment, the vehicle-bridge interaction model consists of a scaled two-axle vehicle model crossing a simply supported steel beam. The bridge model also includes a scaled road surface profile. The effects of varying the vehicle model configuration and speed are investigated. A finite element beam model is calibrated using the experimental results, and a novel algorithm for the identification of global bridge stiffness is validated. Using measured vehicle accelerations as input to the algorithm, the beam stiffness is identified with a reasonable degree of accuracy.