Objective: Endovenous thermal ablation (TA) offers an effective initial treatment option for superficial venous incompetence of the lower limb. These techniques offer lower complication rates with similar efficacy to traditional open surgery. In recent years, nonthermal ablation (NTA) in the form of mechanochemical ablation and cyanoacrylate vein ablation has been suggested to further reduce perioperative morbidity. This study aimed to compare the use of both thermal and nonthermal endovenous ablative techniques in the management of superficial venous incompetence.Methods: A search of online databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane database was last performed in January 2019. Comparative studies comparing NTA with TA were included. The primary outcome was technical success. Secondary outcomes included operative pain, complications, modification of disease severity, and quality of life.Results: Six studies describing the outcomes of 1236 participants and 1256 truncal ablations were included for analysis. Followup ranged from 6 weeks to 36 months. With regard to overall technical success, 458 of 483 (94.8%) receiving NTA and 521 of 553 (94.2%) undergoing TA had successful truncal ablation on follow-up ultrasound imaging at the study end point (pooled risk ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.04). Subgroup analysis identified no difference in success between groups during immediate, 6-month, 12-month, or >12-month follow-up periods. Postprocedural pain was generally lower in those undergoing NTA with a mean difference of 18.11 (95% CI, 36.7 to 0.48). Techniques experienced significatly lower rates of ecchymosis (risk ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.78), with no difference identified with regard to rates of paresthesia, phlebitis, and skin pigmentation. Further assessment of quality of life (mean difference, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.04) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (-0.52; 95% CI, 1.05 to 0.01) revealed no difference between groups. Included data were deemed of moderate methodologic quality.Conclusions: Nonthermal techniques are as effective as standard TA in the first year and, in some studies, may be associated with less procedural pain. These data suggest that NTA offers an alternative and safe means to treat superficial venous disease. There is, however, a need for further powered trials with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up to definitively examine this hypothesis.