Genetic Algorithms, Transcription, Translation, Deception
In nature, living organisms can be viewed as the product of their genotype-phenotype mapping (GP-map). This paper presents a GP-map loosely based on the biological phe- nomena of transcription and translation, to create a multi-layered GP-map which increases the level of phenotypic variability. The aim of the paper is to examine through the use of a fixed non- trivial GP-map, the impact of increased phenotypic variability, on search over a set of deceptive landscapes. The GP-map allows for a non-injective genotype-phenotype relationship, and the phenotypic variability of a number of phenotypes, introduced by the GP-map, are advanced from the genotypes used to encode them through a basic interpretation of transcription and translation. We attempt to analyse the level of variability by measuring diversity, both at a genotypic and phenotypic level. The multi-layered GP-map is incorporated into a Genetic Algorithm, the multi-layered mapping GA (MMGA), and runs over a number of GA-Hard landscapes. Initial empirical results appear to indicate that over deceptive landscapes, as the level of problem difficulty increases, so too does the benefit of using the proposed GP-map to probe the search space.