This chapter introduces current concepts and principles of mental health promotion and examines the theoretical frameworks for practice. Mental health is presented as a positive concept and the implications of embracing a health promotion perspective and a socio-ecological model of mental health are discussed. The determinants of mental health are outlined and the importance of addressing the social determinants of mental health from a life course and multisectoral perspective is considered. An overview of current health promotion and prevention frameworks is provided and the competence enhancement approach is outlined. The chapter concludes by outlining the key principles that underpin the implementation of mental health promotion.