Bacterial microcompartments are self-assembling subcellular structures surrounded by a semipermeable protein shell and found only in bacteria, but not archaea or eukaryotes. The general functions of the bacterial microcompartments are to concentrate enzymes, metabolites, and cofactors for multistep pathways; maintain the cofactor ratio; protect the cell from toxic metabolic intermediates; and protect the encapsulated pathway from unwanted side reactions. The bacterial microcompartments were suggested to play a significant role in organisms of the human gut microbiome, especially for various pathogens. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to analyze the bacterial microcompartments in 646 individual genomes of organisms commonly found in the human gut microbiome. The bacterial microcompartments were found in 150 (23.2%) analyzed genomes. These microcompartments include previously known ones for the utilization of ethanolamine, 1,2-propanediol, choline, and fucose/rhamnose. Moreover, we reconstructed two novel pathways associated with the bacterial microcompartments. These pathways are catabolic pathways for the utilization of 1-amino-2-propanol/1-amino-2-propanone and xanthine. Remarkably, the xanthine utilization pathway does not demonstrate similarity to previously known microcompartment-associated pathways. Thus, we describe a novel type of bacterial microcompartment.