Yield-related traits of Capsicum chinense are highly dependent on coordination between vegetative and reproductive growth, since the formation of reproductive tissues occurs iteratively in new sympodial bifurcations. In this study, we used two C. chinense cultivars (Biquinho and Habanero), contrasting for fruit size and fruit set, to investigate the responses of nitrogen (N) deficiency and excess on growth, photosynthesis, carbon (C) and N metabolisms as well as yield-related traits. Both cultivars increased biomass allocation to leaves in conditions of higher N supply and exhibited a parabolic behavior for fruit biomass allocation. Plants growing under N-deficiency produced a lower number of flowers and heavier fruits. Contrarily, plants under high N condition tended to decrease their CO2 assimilation rate, harvest index and fruit weight. Biquinho, the cultivar with lower fruit size and higher fruit set, was initially less affected by excess of N due to its continuous formation of new reproductive sinks in relation to Habanero (which has lower fruit set and higher fruit size). The results suggest that N amount influences sucrose supply to different organs and can differentially affect yield-related traits between Capsicum cultivars with contrasting source-sink relations.