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Lopez-Grueso, MJ,Gonzalez-Ojeda, R,Requejo-Aguilar, R,McDonagh, B,Fuentes-Almagro, CA,Muntane, J,Barcena, JA,Padilla, CA
2019
February
Redox Biology
Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin regulate metabolism through different multiplex thiol switches
Published
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Optional Fields
Redox proteome Thiol redox regulation Glycolysis S-nitrosation NO synthase Redoxins NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE OXIDATIVE STRESS S-NITROSYLATION GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE REDOX REGULATION PEROXIREDOXIN 6 CELL-DEATH IDENTIFICATION GLYCOLYSIS CANCER
21
The aim of the present study was to define the role of Trx and Grx on metabolic thiol redox regulation and identify their protein and metabolite targets. The hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cell line under both normal and oxidative/nitrosative conditions by overexpression of NO synthase (NOS3) was used as experimental model. Grx1 or Trx1 silencing caused conspicuous changes in the redox proteome reflected by significant changes in the reduced/oxidized ratios of specific Cys's including several glycolytic enzymes. Cys(91) of peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) and Cys(153) of phosphoglycerate mutase-1 (PGAM1), that are known to be involved in progression of tumor growth, are reported here for the first time as specific targets of Grx1. A group of proteins increased their Cys(RED)/Cys(OX) ratio upon Trx1 and/or Grx1 silencing, including caspase-3 Cys(163), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Cys(247) and triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) Cys(255) likely by enhancement of NOS3 autooxidation. The activities of several glycolytic enzymes were also significantly affected. Glycolysis metabolic flux increased upon Trx1 silencing, whereas silencing of Grxl had the opposite effect. Diversion of metabolic fluxes toward synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids was observed in siRNA-Grx1 treated cells, while siRNA-Trx1 treated cells showed elevated levels of various sphingomyelins and ceramides and signs of increased protein degradation. Glutathione synthesis was stimulated by both treatments. These data indicate that Trx and Grx have both, common and specific protein Cys redox targets and that down regulation of either redoxin has markedly different metabolic outcomes. They reflect the delicate sensitivity of redox equilibrium to changes in any of the elements involved and the difficulty of forecasting metabolic responses to redox environmental changes.
10.1016/j.redox.2018.11.007
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