ABSTRACTBACKGROUND:Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia and a strong predictor of functionaloutcome. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of behaviorally based cognitive training programs, althoughthe neural basis of these benefits is unclear. To address this, we reviewed all published studies that have usedneuroimaging to measure neural changes following cognitive training in schizophrenia to identify brain regions mostconsistently affected.METHODS:We searched PubMed for all neuroimaging studies examining cognitive training in schizophrenia pub-lished until December 2018. An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was conducted on a subset offunctional magnetic resonance imaging studies to examine whether any brain regions showed consistent effectsacross studies.RESULTS:In total, 31 original neuroimaging studies of cognitive training were retrieved. Of these studies, 16were functional neuroimaging studies, and 15 of these studies reported increased neural activation followingcognitive training, with increased left prefrontal activation being the most frequently observedfinding. However,activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis did not reveal any specific brain regions showing consistenteffects across studies but rather suggested a broader, more distributed pattern of effects resulting from theinterventions tested.CONCLUSIONS:Although several studies reported increased left prefrontal cortical activation after cognitive training,the lack of statistically significant overlap of brain regions affected by training across studies suggests broad effectsof training on brain activation, possibly due to the variety of training programs used.