The release of phosphorus (P) from sediments may have significant influences on the concentration of water P and the trophic status of lakes. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the mobilization of P in sediments and its release to the overlying water in an incubation experiment and in the field of a shallow Lake Taihu (China). The ZrO-Chelex diffusive gradients in thin films (ZrO-Chelex DGT) and dialysis sampler (Peeper) were used to simultaneously measure labile P/Fe and soluble P/Fe in sediments at vertical resolutions of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively. The results showed that the mean DGT-labile P and soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations at 25 degrees C increased by 279% and 125% in comparison with those at 7 degrees C in the microcosm experiment, respectively, while in the field the proportions became 460% and 189% respectively. The microbial activity in sediments also increased with the rising temperature. Moreover, positive correlations (p < 0.001) existed between DGT-labile P and labile Fe and between SRP and soluble Fe under different temperature, implying that the mobilization of P and its release to the overlying water was dominantly controlled by Fe redox cycling. This study provided strong evidence that the rising temperature enhanced the microbial reduction of P-hosted Fe (oxyhydr) oxide, while an on-site accumulation and degradation of algal material in the sediment surface may lead to a greater effect on P mobilization. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.