This article was prepared to inform the deliberations of the Galway Consensus Conference by providing a common and global reference point for the discussion of terminology and key conceptual and professional issues in the credentialing of health education and health promotion specialists. The article provides a review of the terminology that is currently employed across different countries in defining health education and health promotion as well as health educator and health promotion specialist. The terminology used to describe concepts in professional credentialing of health education and health promotion specialists and the scope of professional responsibilities of such specialists, including the terms professional competencies, professional standards, and accreditation, are also reviewed. Finally, key unresolved issues are identified and discussed from a global perspective. The article concludes that despite differences in terminology in the definitions of roles and responsibilities, health education and health promotion are conceptually more similar than different across countries.