The dopamine precursor, levodopa, remains the "gold standard" treatment for Parkinson's disease, and, although it provides superlative efficacy in the early stages of the disease, its long-term use is limited by the development of severe motor side effects and a significant abating of therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there remains a major unmet clinical need for the development of effective neuroprotective, neurorestorative or neuroreparatory therapies for this condition. The relatively selective loss of dopaminergic neurons from the nigrostriatal pathway makes Parkinson's disease an ideal candidate for reparative cell therapies, wherein the dopaminergic neurons that are lost in the condition are replaced through direct cell transplantation into the brain. To date, this approach has been developed, validated and clinically assessed using dopamine neuron-rich foetal ventral mesencephalon grafts which have been shown to survive and reinnervate the denervated brain after transplantation, and to restore motor function. However, despite long-term symptomatic relief in some patients, significant limitations, including poor graft survival and the impact this has on the number of foetal donors required, have prevented this therapy being more widely adopted as a restorative approach for Parkinson's disease. Injectable biomaterial scaffolds have the potential to improve the delivery, engraftment and survival of these grafts in the brain through provision of a supportive microenvironment for cell adhesion, growth and immune shielding. This article will briefly review the development of primary cell therapies for brain repair in Parkinson's disease and will consider the emerging literature which highlights the potential of using injectable biomaterial hydrogels in this context.