Norovirus (NoV), the leading cause of adult non-bacterial gastroenteritis can be commonly detected in wastewater but the extent of NoV removal provided by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unclear. We monitored a newly commissioned WWTP with UV disinfection on a weekly basis over a six month period for NoV using RT-qPCR and for FRNA bacteriophage GA using both RT-qPCR (total concentration) and a plaque assay (infectious concentration). Mean concentrations of NoV GI and GII in influent wastewater were reduced by 0.25 and 0.41 log(10) genome copies 100 ml(-1), respectively by the WWTP. The mean concentration of total FRNA bacteriophage GA was reduced by 0.35 log genome copies 100 ml(-1) compared to a reduction of infectious FRNA bacteriophage GA of 2.13 log PFU 100 ml(-1). A significant difference between concentrations of infectious and total FRNA bacteriophage GA was observed in treated, but not in untreated wastewaters. We conclude that RT-qPCR in isolation underestimates the reduction of infectious virus during wastewater treatment. We further compared the concentrations of infectious virus in combined sewer overflow (CSO) and UV treated effluents using FRNA bacteriophage GA. A greater percentage (98%) of infectious virus is released in CSO discharges than UV treated effluent (44%). Following a CSO discharge, concentrations of NoV GII and infectious FRNA bacteriophage GA in oysters from less than the limit of detection to 3150 genome copies 100 g(-1) and 1050 PFU 100 g(-1) respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.