This study examined the physical and psychological factors that predict attendance for cervical screening, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in a sample of over 1,000 women aged between 25 and 60 years. The study examined the impact of anticipated regret on attendance for a smear and evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention that encourages women to form implementation intentions as a mechanism to increase uptake rates. Participants were sent a letter inviting them to attend for a smear test and the study questionnaire. Results showed that overall attendance for a smear test was poor (17%). The TPB variables and anticipated regret were significant predictors of intentions to attend. The intervention was effective, with women assigned to the implementation intention condition significantly more likely to attend for a smear than those who did not (32% vs 25%) (chi(2) = 5.55, df = 1, p = 0.02). The results suggest that a simple intervention was effective in increasing attendance for a smear test.