An improved unified cyclic viscoplastic material model for high temperature fatigue of P91 steel is presented. The primary enhancement over existing models is in relation to strain-rate independence of parameters, for accurate interpolation and extrapolation across a range of strain-rates and stress regimes, as relevant to flexible operation of high temperature power generation plant. The model combines a hyperbolic sine constitutive equation with anisothermal cyclic evolution of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables. The material model is developed from a thermodynamic framework and is implemented in multi-axial form within a user material subroutine. The user material subroutine is calibrated and validated for P91 steel across a range of cyclic (isothermal fatigue and thermo-mechanical fatigue) and noncyclic high temperature loading conditions. A novel method for the identification of the cyclic viscoplastic material parameters is also presented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.