Introduction Hyperglycaemia increases succinate concentrations and succinate receptor activation in the kidney resulting in renin release. The aim of our study was to determine if there is an association between glycaemic control as evidenced by glycated haemoglobin values and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Galway University Hospitals between December 2014 and March 2015. Participants (n=66) were identified following interrogation of the electronic database for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Baseline clinical demographics, aldosterone, plasma renin activity, direct renin concentration, urea and electrolytes, glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol, urine sodium and albumin creatinine ratio were recorded.
Results There was a significant positive linear correlation between glycated haemoglobin and renin (both plasma renin activity [P=0.002] and direct renin concentration [P=0.008]) and between serum creatinine and aldosterone measured using both radioimmunoassay (P=0.008) and immunochemiluminometric assay (P=0.008). A significant negative linear correlation was demonstrated between serum sodium and plasma renin activity (P=0.005) and direct renin concentration (P=0.015) and between estimated glomerular filtration rate and aldosterone measured using radioimmunoassay (P=0.02) and immunochemiluminometric assay (P=0.016). A significant negative linear correlation existed between urine sodium and plasma renin activity (P=0.04) and aldosterone measured using radioimmunoassay (P=0.045).
Conclusions There is a direct positive association between glycaemic control and renin. We advocate for renin measurement to be part of the diabetologist's armamentarium to assess, guide and optimize therapeutic strategies in patients with diabetes.