Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF)
behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)
THEORETICAL DOMAINS FRAMEWORK
Objectives: Caution is advised when prescribing antipsychotics to people with dementia. This study explored the determinants of appropriate, evidence-based antipsychotic prescribing behaviors for nursing home residents with dementia, with a view to informing future quality improvement efforts and behavior change interventions.Design: Semistructured qualitative interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF).Setting and Participants: A purposive sample of 27 participants from 4 nursing homes, involved in the care of nursing home residents with dementia (8 nurses, 5 general practitioners, 5 healthcare assistants, 3 family members, 2 pharmacists, 2 consultant geriatricians, and 2 consultant psychiatrists of old age) in a Southern region of Ireland.Measures: Using framework analysis, the predominant TDF domains and determinants influencing these behaviors were identified, and explanatory themes developed.Results: Nine predominant TDF domains were identified as influencing appropriate antipsychotic prescribing behaviors. Participants' effort to achieve "a fine balance" between the risks and benefits of anti-psychotics was identified as the cross-cutting theme that underpinned many of the behavioral determinants. On one hand, neither healthcare workers nor family members wanted to see residents oversedated and without a quality of life. Conversely, the reality of needing to protect staff, family members, and residents from potentially dangerous behavioral symptoms, in a resource-poor environment, was emphasized. The implementation of best-practice guidelines was illustrated through 3 explanatory themes ("human suffering"; "the interface between resident and nursing home"; and "power and knowledge: complex stakeholder dynamics"), which conceptualize how different nursing homes strike this "fine balance."Conclusions: Implementing evidence-based antipsychotic prescribing practices for nursing home residents with dementia remains a significant challenge. Greater policy and institutional support is required to help stakeholders strike that "fine balance" and ultimately make better prescribing decisions. This study has generated a deeper understanding of this complex issue and will inform the development of an evidence-based intervention. (C) 2018 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.