Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Goljanek-Whysall, K;Iwanejko, LA;Vasilaki, A;Pekovic-Vaughan, V;McDonagh, B
2016
August
Mammalian Genome
Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression
Published
Optional Fields
MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN CLOCK FOXO TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS VASTUS LATERALIS MUSCLE SATELLITE CELL CONTENT DIFFERENT FIBER TYPES DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS OXIDATIVE STRESS STEM-CELL CONTRACTILE ACTIVITY DNA-REPAIR
27
341
357
Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function-sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. The cellular responses that occur in muscle fibres following exercise provide valuable clues to the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle homoeostasis and potentially the progression of sarcopenia. Redox signalling, as a result of endogenous generation of ROS/RNS in response to muscle contractions, has been identified as a crucial regulator for the adaptive responses to exercise, highlighting the redox environment as a potentially core therapeutic approach to maintain muscle homoeostasis during ageing. Further novel and attractive candidates include the manipulation of microRNA expression. MicroRNAs are potent gene regulators involved in the control of healthy and disease-associated biological processes and their therapeutic potential has been researched in the context of various disorders, including ageing-associated muscle wasting. Finally, we discuss the impact of the circadian clock on the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle and whether disruption of the peripheral muscle clock affects sarcopenia and altered responses to exercise. Interventions that include modifying altered redox signalling with age and incorporating genetic mechanisms such as circadian- and microRNA-based gene regulation, may offer potential effective treatments against age-associated sarcopenia.
0938-8990
10.1007/s00335-016-9643-x
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