Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on an intricate balance between muscle hypertrophy, atrophy and regeneration. As we age, maintenance of muscle homeostasis is perturbed, resulting in a loss of muscle mass and function, termed sarcopenia. Individuals with sarcopenia exhibit impaired balance, increased falls (leading to subsequent injury) and an overall decline in quality of life. The mechanisms mediating sarcopenia are still not fully understood but clarity in our understanding of the precise pathophysiological changes occurring during skeletal muscle ageing has improved dramatically. Advances in transcriptomics has highlighted significant deregulation in skeletal muscle gene expression with ageing, suggesting epigenetic alterations may play a crucial and potentially causative role in the skeletal muscle ageing process. microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), novel regulators of gene expression, can modulate many processes in skeletal muscle, including myogenesis, tissue regeneration and cellular programming. Expression of numerous evolutionary conserved miRNAs is disrupted in skeletal muscle with age. Given that a single miRNA can simultaneously affect the functionality of multiple signaling pathways, miRNAs are potent modulators of pathophysiological changes. miRNA-based interventions provide a promising new therapeutic strategy against alterations in muscle homeostasis. The aim of this review is two-fold; firstly to outline the latest understanding of the pathophysiological alterations impacting the deregulation of skeletal muscle mass and function with ageing, and secondly, to highlight the mounting evidence for a role of miRNAs in modulating muscle mass, and the need to explore their specific role in sarcopenia. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.