Language ideologies provide the determining link between language practices and the dynamics of minority language shift, decline, maintenance and revival. Overt ideologies may be revealed by direct questioning of speakers but as Bourdieu reminds us in many places in his work, few people have overt opinions about many aspects of their lives, including their linguistic practices, because they are unmarked elements in their shared culture. It is the covert, hidden ideologies that are the real determinants of language practices and sociolinguistic vitality. The research in this volume uncovers a wide variety of often concealed, sometimes paradoxical, always complex, competing ideologies that surround the ways new speakers of minority languages position themselves in relation to their target language and its established speakers, as well as the manner in which new speakers and those from traditional backgrounds accept or reject each other. New speakerness is shown to make hidden ideologies increasingly overt as speakers take stances on linguistic ownership and authenticity, constructing boundaries in response to the views and practices of other speaker types, policy makers and researchers. All speakers are shown to have multiple linguistic identities functioning in diverse, sometimes overlapping communities of practice, perhaps not reversing language shift but taking minoritised languages on new journeys.