Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that are capable of differentiating into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Recently, MSCs have been found to home to the tumour site and engraft in the tumour stroma. However, it is not yet known whether they have a tumour promoting or suppressive function. We investigated the interaction between prostate cancer cell lines 22Rv1, DU145 and PC3, and bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs were 'educated' for extended periods in prostate cancer cell conditioned media and PC3-educated MSCs were found to be the most responsive with a secretory profile rich in pro-inflammatory cytokines. PC3-educated MSCs secreted increased osteopontin (OPN), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and decreased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) compared to untreated MSCs. PC3-educated MSCs showed a reduced migration and proliferation capacity that was dependent on exposure to PC3-conditioned medium. Vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression was decreased in PC3-educated MSCs compared to untreated MSCs. PC3 and DU145 education of healthy donor and prostate cancer patient derived MSCs led to a reduced proportion of FAP+ αSMA+ cells contrary to characteristics commonly associated with cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). The migration of PC3 cells was increased towards both PC3-educated and DU145-educated MSCs compared to untreated MSCs, while DU145 migration was only enhanced towards patient derived MSCs In summary, MSCs developed an altered phenotype in response to prostate cancer conditioned medium which resulted in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modified the functional activity and the chemoattraction of prostate cancer cells.