Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Clarke, R., Healy, M.G., Fenton, O., Cummins, E.
Food Research International
Quantitative risk assessment of antimicrobials in biosolids applied on agricultural land and potential translocation into food.
Optional Fields
biosolids, contaminants, human exposure, risk
The use of biosolids as a fertiliser may be an indirect route for contaminants into the food chain. One of the main concerns regarding the spreading of biosolids on agricultural land is the potential uptake of contaminants into plants which may bio-transfer into grazing animals that supply the food chain directly (e.g. meat and milk) and hence are subsequently consumed. The aim of this project was to create a quantitative risk assessment model to estimate the fate and translocation of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) into the feed and food chain with subsequent human exposure. The model’s results indicate that TCS and TCC have low potential to transfer into milk and beef following the ingestion of contaminated grass by dairy cows. Mean estimated TCS and TCC residues in milk and beef show that TCC had the greatest concentration (mean values of 7.77 × 10-6 mg kg-1 in milk and 1.36 × 10-4 mg kg-1 in beef). Human exposure results show that TCC was greater for milk consumption in infants (1-4 years) (mean value 1.14 × 10-7 mg kg-1 bw d-1) and for beef consumption by teens (12-17 years) (mean value 6.87 × 10-8 mg kg-1 bw d-1). Concentrations of TCS and TCC were well below the estimated acceptable daily intake (ADI). Human health risk was estimated by evaluation of the hazard quotient (HQ), which used the NOAEL as a toxicity endpoint, combined with milk and beef human exposure estimates. HQ results show that all values were <0.01 (no existing risk). A sensitivity analysis revealed that the Kow and initial concentration in biosolids as the parameters of greatest importance (correlation coefficients 0.91 and 0.19, respectively). This highlights the importance of physio-chemical properties of the compounds and their detection in biosolids post wastewater treatment along with their persistence in soil following application. This model is a valuable tool in which to ascertain the potential transfer of contaminants in the environment into animal forage with knock on consequences for exposure through the human food chain
Grant Details
EPA Strive
Publication Themes
Environment, Marine and Energy