Anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated pig manure (PM) with grass silage (GS) at five different PM to GS volatile solid (VS) ratios of 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 0:1 was evaluated by examining operation stability and methane (CH4) production potentials. The highest specific CH4 yields were 304.2 and 302.8 ml CH4/g VS at PM to GS ratios of 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. The digestion systems failed at the ratio of 0:1. The lag phase lasted 29.5, 28.1, 24.6 and 21.3 days at the ratios of 1:0, 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. The daily methane yield was linearly correlated with the acetic acid concentration, indicating methane production was probably associated with acetoclastic methanogenesis. The hydrolysis constant linearly decreased with increasing the fraction of GS in the feedstock. This study recommends applying the PM to GS ratio of 1:1 in practice due to a high specific methane yield and a short lag phase. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.