In this study, for the first time the diversity of bacteria associated with the endemic freshwater sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis collected from the Sousern Basin of Lake Baikal was investigated employing cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 102 bacterial 16S rRNA clones were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 30 were selected for sequencing. BLASTN and phylogenetic analysis based on near full length 16S rDNA sequences showed that 22 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were clustered in six known phyla: Actinobacteria (8 OTUs), alpha-Proteobacteria (4 OTUs), beta-Proteobacteria (4 OTUs), Verrucomicrobia (4 OTUs), Nitrospiracea (1 OTU) and Bacteroidetes (1 OTU). Remarkably all phylotypes were affiliated to uncultured microorganisms, however, all alpha-Proteobacteria sequences were closely related to bacteria derived from the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. Our results reveal a high diversity in the L. baicalensis bacterial community and provide an insight into microbial ecology and diversity within freshwater sponges inhabiting the ancient Lake Baikal ecosystem.