What lies beneath? Co-Registration of novel optical imaging techniques of nasal mucosa with traditional histology.
Fergal Kavanagh1, Prof P. Dockery2, Prof I. Keogh1,2.
1. Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Galway, Newcastle Rd, Galway.
2. Department of Human Anatomy, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway.
Nasal mucosa is characterized by a tendency for reflex- induced and profuse watery hypersecretion and for quick and considerable changes of mucosal thickness due to the presence of large venous sinusoids. Sino Nasal disease is a significant global problem, impacting patient quality of life and associated with significant cost1. Our objective was to co register traditional histology of the nasal mucosa with Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images.
Methods and Results:
This retrospective observational study used cadaver dissection, histology H+E slides, OCT and NBI images of normal and rhinitic nasal mucosa to identify patterns of disease and correlated this normal and rhinitic nasal mucosa. NBI refers to an optical imaging technique for endoscopic diagnostic tests which uses narrow band optical filters to enhance the visualisation of epithelial and sub epithelial microanatomy. OCT is an emerging modality using light to produce in vivo high resolution cross sectional images of tissues to depths of up to 3mm
Point of care imaging techniques are valuable tools providing accurate imaging of the nasal mucosa and micro anatomy. NBI and OCT are real time non invasive imaging modalities that operate without the need for cytotoxic fixation, dyes or ionising radiation and these are imaging techniques that could be used in the diagnosis and management of nasal disease. There will be broad clinical and therapeutic application in the future.
1. Meltzer EO, Nathan R, Derebery J, Stang PE, Campbell UB, Yeh WS, Corrao M, Stanford R. Sleep, quality of life, and productivity impact of nasal symptoms in the United States: findings from the Burden of Rhinitis in America survey. Allergy and asthma proceedings 2009 May 1 (Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 244-254)