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Szondy, Z.,Toth, R.,Szegezdi, E.,Reichert, U.,Ancian, P.,Fesus, L.
2001
Cell death in HIV pathogenesis and its modulation by retinoids
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946
95
107
Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus exhibit a progressive decline in the CD4 T-cell number, resulting in immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Although CD4 T cell production is impaired in patients infected with HIV, there is now increasing evidence that the primary basis of T cell depletion is accelerated apoptosis of CD4 and CD8 T cells. The rate of lymphocyte apoptosis in HIV infection correlates inversely with the progression of the disease: it is low in long-term progressors and in patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Interestingly, only a minor fraction of apoptotic lymphocytes are infected by HIV, indicating that the enhanced apoptosis does not necessarily always serve to remove the HIV+ cells and results from mechanisms other than direct infection. Thus, understanding and influencing the mechanisms of HIV-associated lymphocyte apoptosis may lead to new therapies for HIV disease. In this paper the potential effects of retinoids on CD4 T cell apoptosis is discussed.Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus exhibit a progressive decline in the CD4 T-cell number, resulting in immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Although CD4 T cell production is impaired in patients infected with HIV, there is now increasing evidence that the primary basis of T cell depletion is accelerated apoptosis of CD4 and CD8 T cells. The rate of lymphocyte apoptosis in HIV infection correlates inversely with the progression of the disease: it is low in long-term progressors and in patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Interestingly, only a minor fraction of apoptotic lymphocytes are infected by HIV, indicating that the enhanced apoptosis does not necessarily always serve to remove the HIV+ cells and results from mechanisms other than direct infection. Thus, understanding and influencing the mechanisms of HIV-associated lymphocyte apoptosis may lead to new therapies for HIV disease. In this paper the potential effects of retinoids on CD4 T cell apoptosis is discussed.
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