Purpose: With one of the highest incidences across Europe and the rest of the World in 2012, the Republic of Ireland (RoI) has experienced significant increases in prostate cancer (PCa) since 1994. The main driver is the widespread use of PSA testing which is used to detect PCa. This is expected to have significant implications on resource use in the RoI. The focus of this paper was to (i) derive costs for the PCa pathway, from diagnosis to treatment, and (ii) estimate overall healthcare expenditure for PCa in the RoI.Methods: PCa incidence (ICD-10 code: C61), treatment and mortality data during 2007-2010 was obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Costs associated with diagnosis, treatment, treatment complications, clinical follow-up to year four post-diagnosis and terminal (palliative) care were estimated using sources such as survey data, Irish inpatient costs and published costs.Results: The overall estimated burden of healthcare costs associated with those diagnosed with PCa and receiving care (up to four-year post-diagnosis) or dying from PCa in 2010 was approximately (sic)45.6 million. The overall cost associated with detection, via PSA testing, for those diagnosed with PCa in 2010 (n = 3287) was (sic)366,369. Treatment costs varied considerably with the most expensive treatment being chemotherapy and radical prostatectomy (unit cost (sic)11,278 and (sic)7324, respectively).Conclusions: PCa incidence partly due to high levels of PSA testing has significant resource utilisation implications in the RoI.