Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
van Sluis, M,van Vuuren, C,McStay, B,Nemeth, A
Methods Mol Biol
The Relationship Between Human Nucleolar Organizer Regions and Nucleoli, Probed by 3D-ImmunoFISH
Optional Fields
3D-immunoFISH Nucleolus Nucleolar organizer region (NOR) Ribosomal genes Human acrocentric chromosomes RIBOSOMAL DNA REPEAT HUMAN-CELLS TRANSCRIPTION MACHINERY GENOMIC ARCHITECTURE RNA RECRUITMENT NORS
3D-immunoFISH is a valuable technique to compare the localization of DNA sequences and proteins in cells where three-dimensional structure has been preserved. As nucleoli contain a multitude of protein factors dedicated to ribosome biogenesis and form around specific chromosomal loci, 3D-immunoFISH is a particularly relevant technique for their study. In human cells, nucleoli form around transcriptionally active ribosomal gene (rDNA) arrays termed nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) positioned on the p-arms of each of the acrocentric chromosomes. Here, we provide a protocol for fixing and permeabilizing human cells grown on microscope slides such that nucleolar proteins can be visualized using antibodies and NORs visualized by DNA FISH. Antibodies against UBF recognize transcriptionally active rDNA/NORs and NOP52 antibodies provide a convenient way of visualizing the nucleolar volume. We describe a probe designed to visualize rDNA and introduce a probe comprised of NOR distal sequences, which can be used to identify or count individual NORs.
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