Skeletal muscle represents a physiologically relevant model for the application of redox proteomic techniques to dissect its response to exercise and aging. Contracting skeletal muscles generate ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) necessary for the regulation of many proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. The magnitude and species of ROS/RNS generated by contracting muscles will have downstream effects on specific protein targets and cellular redox signalling. Redox modifications on specific proteins are essential for the adaptive response to exercise and skeletal muscle can develop a dysregulated redox response during aging. In the present article, we discuss how redox proteomics can be applied to identify and quantify the reversible modifications on susceptible cysteine residues within those redox-sensitive proteins, and the integration of oxidative and non-oxidative protein modifications in relation to the functional proteome.