We report on a reverse-hybridization line probe assay (LiPA) which when combined with PCR amplification detects and identifies clinically significant fungal pathogens including Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus species. DNA probes have been designed from the internal transcribed-spacer (ITS) regions of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus. The probes were incorporated into a LiPA for detection of biotinylated ITS PCR products, and the specificity of the probes was evaluated. We established LiPA detection limits for ITS 1 and for full ITS amplicons for genomic DNA from C. albicans, A. fumigatus, and C, neoformans. Further evaluation of the LiPA was carried out on clinical fungal isolates, One hundred twenty-seven isolates consisting of dimorphic yeasts and dermatophytic and filamentous fungi were tested by the LiPA, which correctly identified 77 dimorphic yeasts and 23 of the filamentous isolates; the remaining 27 isolates represented species of Fungi for which probes were not included in the LiPA. The fungal-PCR-LiPA technology was applied to blood samples inoculated with Candida cells which were pretreated by minibead beating to mechanically disrupt the cells, with the DNA extracted by either a previously described guanidium thiocyanate-silica method or the commercially available QIAmp tissue kit, PCR amplification of the extracted DNA and subsequent DNA probe hybridization in the LiPA assay yielded detection limits of 2 to 10 cells/ml, An internal standard control was included in the PCR amplification to monitor for PCR inhibition. This fungal PCR-LiPA assay is robust and sensitive and can easily be integrated into a clinical-testing laboratory with the potential for same-day diagnosis of fungal infection.