This paper uses embodied energy (EE)
and embodied carbon (EC) as indicators of the environmental impact of
reinforced concrete (RC). Accuracy and completeness of EE/EC analysis is
dependent on the method used. This paper demonstrates that by understanding how
energy is consumed in the production of each constituent part and in the manufacture
of RC, designers can significantly reduce the overall EE and EC of structures.
Both EE and EC of products can vary from country to country. Therefore, to accurately
calculate these for RC structures, data specific to the country where they are
being constructed must be used. This paper presents the assessment of EE and EC
in typical RC structures in Ireland. A case study is presented where it is
shown that by replacing ordinary portland cement (OPC) with ground granulated
blastfurnace slag (GGBS), savings are achievable in the construction of a
multi-megawatt wind turbine in Ireland.