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Barrett, M,Fitzhenry, K,O'Flaherty, V,Dore, W,Keaveney, S,Cormican, M,Rowan, N,Clifford, E
2016
October
Science Of The Total Environment
Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities
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Norovirus Tertiary wastewater treatment Ultraviolet (UV) Pulse UV Pathogen removal Human health REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTION-PCR NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES MURINE NOROVIRUS FELINE CALICIVIRUS REMOVAL GASTROENTERITIS SHELLFISH BACTERIA BACTERIOPHAGES CONTAMINATION
568
1026
1036
It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation.This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm(2) (6900 mJ/cm(2)) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.067
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