Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Current therapies suppress a misdirected myelin-destructive immune response. To combat the progressive, neurodestructive phase of MS, the therapeutic research focus is currently on compounds that might boost the endogenous potential of the brain to remyelinate axons, thereby achieving lesion repair. Here, we describe the testing of fingolimod on cultures of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and organotypic brain slices. We detail the protocols, pros, and cons of these in vitro and ex vivo approaches, along with the potential benefit of exploiting skin-punch biopsies from patients with MS, before concluding with a summary of future developments.